Saturday, August 13, 2011

Contribution to the science from Copernicus, Kepler and Galileo

During the Middle Ages, there was a golden era for science and technology where the scientific revolution took place. The scientific knowledge began to grow by leaps and bounds. Scientists did many experiments and they concluded through their observations. Among the greatest scientists, Copernicus, Kepler and Galileo involved in a major role.

Firstly, Nicolas Copernicus, who was a Polish scientist, studied and checked status about motion of  heavenly objects. He mentioned after analyzing the observation that we should be in a heliocentric solar system.He also rejected the geocentric theory which the catholic church believed. Heliocentric theory means all the other planets rotate around the sun instead of the earth. Copernicus didn't have clear evidence to prove his claims. Afterwards, he kept it with his until he gets a mathematical and physical proof.

Secondly, Johanna Kepler who was a German mathematician, astronomer and astrologer, studied about most significant applications of physics laws which were related to astronomy. He was able to prove that planets rotate in a elliptical orbits. However, he failed to conclude about the structure about the solar system. He was given many honors for his contribution to the science and technology. Some of the honors are Kepler's law of planetary motion, Kepler asteroid, Kepler's star, and Kepler's crater on the moon.

Thirdly,Galileo Galilee was an Italian scientist. He was a physicist, mathematician, astronomer and a philosopher. Moreover, he is called as father of modern observational astronomy, father of modern physics, father of science and father of modern science. He illustrated that gravity accelerated all objects towards the earth at the same rate. Furthermore, he accepted Copernicus on heliocentric theory. Galileo published Dialogue on the Two Chief Systems in the World which conveys more on heliocentric theory of the universe. He proved his claims with evidence taken from the study of physics.In addiction, he invented the telescope in order to look at the sky.

To sum up, many scientists contributed to this world in numerous ways. Among those characters, Copernicus, Kepler and Galileo play a vital role.They have done their responsibility as scientists. 

Bio-fuel and Sri Lanka

Bio-fuel which derived from bio waste or in other words, plant and animal waste has many benefits to mankind for their greater goodness. Although bio-fuel contains disadvantages, the advantages are greater than them according to the articles I referred. Consequently, bio-fuels of all matter are taken from nature. They have energy of sun stored in trees and animals. After some procedures, people can make use of bio-fuel in many ways.
Firstly, accordingly, firewood is a frequent mode of bio-fuel in Sri Lanka which helps to overcome hardships. Villagers can discover it from their surroundings easily as there are plenty of died parts of trees available. It allows many people to make profits from them. People in remote areas can collect and sell firewood, save their money for fuel that uses for cooking as wood is common in rural areas. Consequently, it improves the living standards of destitute in countryside as they gain extra amount.
 Secondly, Sri Lanka generates liquid bio-fuel as there are many plants that hold oil seed providing various benefits for rural people. Growing oil seed bearing trees need space. Thus, countryside people are the ones who are fortunate to take the advantage out of it. They receive revenue from growing plants, selling their items. It supports them to lessen hardships that they have to deal with. As they can use kerosene instead of natural kerosene oil, it gives then satisfaction because it reduces the cost for transportation to the town for kerosene, cooking and lightening or electricity. Hence, these conserve deposits of rural people by giving them a better living style. Moreover, on one hand, people get a better earning. On the other hand, they can afford for their children’s education. In addition, women are able to work and save for the family. Liquid bio-fuels contribute to the environment in a positive way reducing pollution and erosion. Also people can make use of barren land even.
Thirdly, people can produce bio gas, which is one of the most common forms of bio-fuels, at their home premises at an inexpensive rate. Villagers can easily install a bio gas unit at home. It reduces electricity and cooking costs. Also it diminishes transportation costs. Furthermore, bio-gas units help to make earnings from garbage that throw away from house and garden. As its setup cost and ingredient are cheap, people in rural areas can get a good net profit to enhance their living standard.
These kinds of bio-fuels have drawbacks. The government has to spend a huge amount of money to develop the technology to achieve large amount of profit. Farmers should be encouraged to cultivate oil bearing seeds though they don’t wish to give up their traditional cultivations. As there are not enough oil seeds currently in Sri Lanka, the government and relevant authorities have to wait till those trees produce their crops.
 In brief, considering all these facts and data, there are lots of advantage of bio-fuels while there is disadvantages it also.  However, I think that if Sri Lanka takes steps to develop and to overcome the barriers in implementing bio-fuels as the key source of energy generation, Sri Lanka is going to achieve a huge economic development in near future. It will contribute to reduce the poverty and hunger in all over the country avoiding being a 3rd world country.

Gaseous Bio-fuels

Biogas or methane is the main form of gaseous biofuels. Biogas is produced through methane digester system called anaerobic digester. It decomposes organic in fertilizer to simple organic gaseous compounds (Demirbas, 2008).Continuous feed digesters( feed a few each day for regular production) and patch load digesters( filled all at one time as production of gas reduces when it is emptied ) are the main two types of biogas digesters used to yield methane. People use both methods to get a better number of crops (Hoard & Hoard, 2008).
It is not difficult to make a bio-gas plant at home. Only little equipment is needed to be found. They are: two or three barrels with lids, retaining rings, manure, tubes and manifolds (made with pipe). First, manure is filled into the barrels and kept in exposure to sun to warm. The nature by itself does the gas producing process. Second, Barrels must be connected with the help of tubing and it should be gone through two manifolds to gather produced gas. Furthermore, this tubing system should be placed in a shed a little away from the barrels and other buildings and weather. This process is an eco-friendly procedure and cheap too. As it consists of a few steps, it is easy to install this system in remote areas where there is empty spaces or gardens of villagers. (Wickramasinghe, 2008)  
When using bio-gas technology for a domestic plant, we can use it as a good cooking fuel which combustions with oxygen properly. Moreover, it’s sufficient to save 70% - 90% consumption of firewood or other expensive cooking gases such as LP Gas. Also it reduces the carbon dioxide emission to the environment. When we use a well improved cooking stove, the productivity of bio-gas also increases as it has more space to react with oxygen in the normal air (Holandia Biotech, 2005). In addition, this domestic gas unit is simple, cheap and effortlessly expandable without any electricity for operation. This method also encourages maintaining large gardens and to save money, besides, it keeps the environment clean. Hence, anyone who has a little money with their land can implement a bio-gas plant and make their expenses at a low rate.

Liquid Bio-fuels

Liquid biofuel consists of bioethanol and biodiesel. These are also derived from biomass. For instance, bio ethanol is taken from sugar cane, rice or sweet potatoes; bio diesel is derived from Jatropha oil or coconut oil. Furthermore, biodiesel can be obtained from woody biomass such as fast growing trees like Gliricidia (Nissanka, 2010). Indirectly, liquid biofuel is making use of solar energy. According to the article “Potential production of biodiesel”, Peterson says, “Photosynthesis is carried out many different organisms, ranging from plants to bacteria. Energy for the process is provided by light, which is absorbed by pigments such as chlorophylls and carotenoids. Thus, through the process of photosynthesis, the energy of sunlight is converted to a liquid fuel that with some additional processes” (Peterson, 2005, pg. 1).
In order to bring into being liquid bio fuel, people use many crops. Coconut is one of the main plants that can produce biodiesel. Other than that, there are newly introduced plants such as Gliricidia sepium, Jathropha, Pongamia pinnata, Azadirachta indica (Wickramasinghe, 2008) , Acacia auriculiformis and leucaenal eucocephala. Jathropha, castor, rubber seed, oil palm, soya bean and mustard are used to produce biodiesel while rice, maize, cassava, potatoes, soy beans and sugar cane are used to generate bioethanol. Gliricidia sepium has ability to become an inexpensive native energy stream with resident economic and employment opportunities (Nissanka, 2010).
 Producing liquid bio fuel brings several proceeds to the public. When people involve in collecting seeds, maintaining oil seed plantations and other farm work, they get paid. As a result, they can have an income. It lends a hand to poor people who only depend on farming to reduce their hunger and poverty. When their economy status increases, their domestic environments get in to a pleasant condition. It assists for children in ranch families to attend school and to have a better education. Moreover, it paves the way for women to empower themselves and to contribute to the family budgets (Wickramasinghe, 2008).
 The author notes that there are many more advantages in liquid bio-fuel. As Gliricidia and Leucena are nitrogen storing plants; these help to enrich the soil. In addition, it diminishes the soil erosion in when they are grown in slopes.  Farmers get profits from degraded lands because these plants can be grown in barren lands also (BEAS, 2007). People can decline their electricity costs replacing kerosene. Moreover, they can lessen the transportation expenditures to the city for kerosene. They can conserve some amount to get rid of their impoverishment (Wickramasinghe, 2008).
Further advantages are stated in the article, “Why Sri Lanka needs Dendro energy?” of Bio Energy Association of Sri Lanka. When country farmers gain extra cash from the Dendro or tree plantations, they can adopt animals. Hence, it leads to improve the dairy industry. Besides, people in country zones can have bio-fuel energy for those areas where electricity board cannot be reached. It causes to economic, social development in those remote places (BEAS, 2007). Bio-fuel reduces emission of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases which are responsible for global warming and climate changes because plants absorb carbon dioxide from the environment (Endersby A., 2007). Consequently, liquid bio-fuel is a useful energy producing mode.

Monday, August 1, 2011

Myths, fairytales and stories of the God teach lessons about life in Sri Lanka

When we are kids, parents tell us many stories about myths, fairytales and stories about God. There is no matter where we live. It is the way that we pass our childhood with our guardians. Generally, as the majority of people are Buddhists, they believe in God as well as Lord Buddha. As a result, parents take those myths and stories to teach their children lessons in life.
Firstly, we believe in horoscopes as they help us to figure out which path of life to select. Although most of people ignore the concept of horoscopes, according to my personal view, we can have faith on them up to some extent. Life is unpredictable. When we walk on a dark way, we need at least a small light to find out the direction. We can find our abilities and potential of our decisions with the help of stars which are on the sky when we come to this world. Every person has an identical horoscope. The astrologers who know to read what stars tell can predict about our lives. Thus, we can make decisions according to them without blinding selecting choices
Secondly, stories about Lord Buddha teach us lessons to treat and help others who are in need of help. Parents take us to see wesak lanterns and pandols in the wesak season when we commemorate the birth, enlightenment and passing away of Lord Buddha. There are many coaching we can gain. He shows his followers how to treat people who are suffering with different diseases, poverty and blindness without considering their class or cast. He made himself as an example to the public. We also can become skilled at those qualities, such as passion and patience. Hence, it contributes us to be a successful person following stories of Buddha.
             Thirdly, past life stories of Buddha convey many qualities that can absorb to our selves. There is a book called 550 Jathaka katha which contains five hundred and fifty one stories about past lives of the Buddha. Each and every story has a lesson to be learned. It teaches us about what is going to happen if we don’t adopt pleasant attitudes. For instance, if we are too much greedy, what is going to be the result? In the story, “Golden Swan Story”, it shows the fact I mentions above how greediness affects. Moreover, in the epic of “Mahaushada Story”, it conveys how to make brainy decisions and how to analysis something wisely. Therefore, the stories of Buddha teach many lessons that one can move in a bright pathway.
In conclusion, there are many stories that we can educate ourselves. Horoscopes, Stories of Lord Buddha’s life and past life are the main sources that we can get examples. According to my point of view, I think that if someone lives in a religious back ground, he can live a prosperous life although it seems like boring.

Silencing the right of expressing ideas in Sri Lanka

The duty of media is conveying what is happening around us in a realistic way including economic, cultural and political facts. When journalists express their ideas freely regarding politics, many parties threat them to avoid their expressions. The right of delivering opinions has been violated due to political powers. There are many ways that the different parties have used to stop journalists even in Sri Lanka.  To avoid writers’ duties in Sri Lanka, they have been assassinated; they have been kid napped and put in to jails for lame fake reasons as the means of silencing their voice.

Firstly, many journalists were assassinated miserably to end their activities. For example, Mr. Lasantha Wickremathunga who was the editor of Sunday Leader newspaper was shot dead in a high security zone where the army soldiers mobilize in Sri Lanka. He was a well-known government critic. In order to stopover his straight forwardness against the government in power, he used his writing and presenting ability. It was a disadvantage for those who govern. Then finally they killed Mr. L. Wickremathunga while he was going to the office from home. That is how relevant parties make steps to stop the upcoming voices against them. Moreover, Mr. Prageeth Eknaligods who was maintaining a news website was missing. People believe that he also has already been murdered. However, no-one has taken steps for their security.

Secondly, the authorities attempt to put their opponents in to jail for fake reasons. In Sri Lanka, there was a presidential election in 2010. Mr. Mahinda Rajapakse and General Sarath Fonseka who was the former head of the army competed against each other to be elected as the president. Soon after Mr. Mahinda Rajapakse won the election, he ordered Mr. Sarath Fonseka to implement a military court for bringing unauthorized equipment to the country under his period of office. Currently, he was placed in Welikada jail for being in contradiction of the president. Besides, he lost his seat in the parliament after he was taken to jail. Consequently, no matter who they are, the relevant parties punish them for not obeying them. That is also another mean of silencing opponent ideas.

Finally, those who hold the power use their authority to destroy media stations to prevent revealing the ideas against them. There are many incidents occurred in Sri Lanka in the recent past. For instance, an armed gang has attacked the Siyatha TV station at Colombo with firebombs. The closest reason to the attack was that it is linked to the former opposition presidential candidate Sri Lanka. Furthermore, another gang attacked the office of MTV/MBC in the presence of police officers. However, even the police have not taken any steps alongside to put suspects to the custody though they got proofs of suspects. Sri Lankan authorities use their ultimate power to silence the media which make trouble to them.

In conclusion, there are many ways to silence the media against their right of expressing ideas for the justice. Many journalists have been kidnapped or assassinated. Some are taken in to custody while media stations are destroyed. Still there is a doubt remaining regarding media freedom.