Saturday, August 13, 2011

Contribution to the science from Copernicus, Kepler and Galileo


During the Middle Ages, there was a golden era for science and technology where the scientific revolution took place. The scientific knowledge began to grow by leaps and bounds. Scientists did many experiments and they concluded through their observations. Among the greatest scientists, Copernicus, Kepler and Galileo involved in a major role.


Firstly, Nicolas Copernicus, who was a Polish scientist, studied and checked status about motion of  heavenly objects. He mentioned after analyzing the observation that we should be in a heliocentric solar system.He also rejected the geocentric theory which the catholic church believed. Heliocentric theory means all the other planets rotate around the sun instead of the earth. Copernicus didn't have clear evidence to prove his claims. Afterwards, he kept it with his until he gets a mathematical and physical proof.

Secondly, Johanna Kepler who was a German mathematician, astronomer and astrologer, studied about most significant applications of physics laws which were related to astronomy. He was able to prove that planets rotate in a elliptical orbits. However, he failed to conclude about the structure about the solar system. He was given many honors for his contribution to the science and technology. Some of the honors are Kepler's law of planetary motion, Kepler asteroid, Kepler's star, and Kepler's crater on the moon.


Thirdly,Galileo Galilee was an Italian scientist. He was a physicist, mathematician, astronomer and a philosopher. Moreover, he is called as father of modern observational astronomy, father of modern physics, father of science and father of modern science. He illustrated that gravity accelerated all objects towards the earth at the same rate. Furthermore, he accepted Copernicus on heliocentric theory. Galileo published Dialogue on the Two Chief Systems in the World which conveys more on heliocentric theory of the universe. He proved his claims with evidence taken from the study of physics.In addiction, he invented the telescope in order to look at the sky.

To sum up, many scientists contributed to this world in numerous ways. Among those characters, Copernicus, Kepler and Galileo play a vital role.They have done their responsibility as scientists. 

Bio-fuel and Sri Lanka


Bio-fuel which derived from bio waste or in other words, plant and animal waste has many benefits to mankind for their greater goodness. Although bio-fuel contains disadvantages, the advantages are greater than them according to the articles I referred. Consequently, bio-fuels of all matter are taken from nature. They have energy of sun stored in trees and animals. After some procedures, people can make use of bio-fuel in many ways.
Firstly, accordingly, firewood is a frequent mode of bio-fuel in Sri Lanka which helps to overcome hardships. Villagers can discover it from their surroundings easily as there are plenty of died parts of trees available. It allows many people to make profits from them. People in remote areas can collect and sell firewood, save their money for fuel that uses for cooking as wood is common in rural areas. Consequently, it improves the living standards of destitute in countryside as they gain extra amount.
 Secondly, Sri Lanka generates liquid bio-fuel as there are many plants that hold oil seed providing various benefits for rural people. Growing oil seed bearing trees need space. Thus, countryside people are the ones who are fortunate to take the advantage out of it. They receive revenue from growing plants, selling their items. It supports them to lessen hardships that they have to deal with. As they can use kerosene instead of natural kerosene oil, it gives then satisfaction because it reduces the cost for transportation to the town for kerosene, cooking and lightening or electricity. Hence, these conserve deposits of rural people by giving them a better living style. Moreover, on one hand, people get a better earning. On the other hand, they can afford for their children’s education. In addition, women are able to work and save for the family. Liquid bio-fuels contribute to the environment in a positive way reducing pollution and erosion. Also people can make use of barren land even.
Thirdly, people can produce bio gas, which is one of the most common forms of bio-fuels, at their home premises at an inexpensive rate. Villagers can easily install a bio gas unit at home. It reduces electricity and cooking costs. Also it diminishes transportation costs. Furthermore, bio-gas units help to make earnings from garbage that throw away from house and garden. As its setup cost and ingredient are cheap, people in rural areas can get a good net profit to enhance their living standard.
These kinds of bio-fuels have drawbacks. The government has to spend a huge amount of money to develop the technology to achieve large amount of profit. Farmers should be encouraged to cultivate oil bearing seeds though they don’t wish to give up their traditional cultivations. As there are not enough oil seeds currently in Sri Lanka, the government and relevant authorities have to wait till those trees produce their crops.
 In brief, considering all these facts and data, there are lots of advantage of bio-fuels while there is disadvantages it also.  However, I think that if Sri Lanka takes steps to develop and to overcome the barriers in implementing bio-fuels as the key source of energy generation, Sri Lanka is going to achieve a huge economic development in near future. It will contribute to reduce the poverty and hunger in all over the country avoiding being a 3rd world country.

Gaseous Bio-fuels


Biogas or methane is the main form of gaseous biofuels. Biogas is produced through methane digester system called anaerobic digester. It decomposes organic in fertilizer to simple organic gaseous compounds (Demirbas, 2008).Continuous feed digesters( feed a few each day for regular production) and patch load digesters( filled all at one time as production of gas reduces when it is emptied ) are the main two types of biogas digesters used to yield methane. People use both methods to get a better number of crops (Hoard & Hoard, 2008).
It is not difficult to make a bio-gas plant at home. Only little equipment is needed to be found. They are: two or three barrels with lids, retaining rings, manure, tubes and manifolds (made with pipe). First, manure is filled into the barrels and kept in exposure to sun to warm. The nature by itself does the gas producing process. Second, Barrels must be connected with the help of tubing and it should be gone through two manifolds to gather produced gas. Furthermore, this tubing system should be placed in a shed a little away from the barrels and other buildings and weather. This process is an eco-friendly procedure and cheap too. As it consists of a few steps, it is easy to install this system in remote areas where there is empty spaces or gardens of villagers. (Wickramasinghe, 2008)  
When using bio-gas technology for a domestic plant, we can use it as a good cooking fuel which combustions with oxygen properly. Moreover, it’s sufficient to save 70% - 90% consumption of firewood or other expensive cooking gases such as LP Gas. Also it reduces the carbon dioxide emission to the environment. When we use a well improved cooking stove, the productivity of bio-gas also increases as it has more space to react with oxygen in the normal air (Holandia Biotech, 2005). In addition, this domestic gas unit is simple, cheap and effortlessly expandable without any electricity for operation. This method also encourages maintaining large gardens and to save money, besides, it keeps the environment clean. Hence, anyone who has a little money with their land can implement a bio-gas plant and make their expenses at a low rate.

Liquid Bio-fuels


Liquid biofuel consists of bioethanol and biodiesel. These are also derived from biomass. For instance, bio ethanol is taken from sugar cane, rice or sweet potatoes; bio diesel is derived from Jatropha oil or coconut oil. Furthermore, biodiesel can be obtained from woody biomass such as fast growing trees like Gliricidia (Nissanka, 2010). Indirectly, liquid biofuel is making use of solar energy. According to the article “Potential production of biodiesel”, Peterson says, “Photosynthesis is carried out many different organisms, ranging from plants to bacteria. Energy for the process is provided by light, which is absorbed by pigments such as chlorophylls and carotenoids. Thus, through the process of photosynthesis, the energy of sunlight is converted to a liquid fuel that with some additional processes” (Peterson, 2005, pg. 1).
In order to bring into being liquid bio fuel, people use many crops. Coconut is one of the main plants that can produce biodiesel. Other than that, there are newly introduced plants such as Gliricidia sepium, Jathropha, Pongamia pinnata, Azadirachta indica (Wickramasinghe, 2008) , Acacia auriculiformis and leucaenal eucocephala. Jathropha, castor, rubber seed, oil palm, soya bean and mustard are used to produce biodiesel while rice, maize, cassava, potatoes, soy beans and sugar cane are used to generate bioethanol. Gliricidia sepium has ability to become an inexpensive native energy stream with resident economic and employment opportunities (Nissanka, 2010).
 Producing liquid bio fuel brings several proceeds to the public. When people involve in collecting seeds, maintaining oil seed plantations and other farm work, they get paid. As a result, they can have an income. It lends a hand to poor people who only depend on farming to reduce their hunger and poverty. When their economy status increases, their domestic environments get in to a pleasant condition. It assists for children in ranch families to attend school and to have a better education. Moreover, it paves the way for women to empower themselves and to contribute to the family budgets (Wickramasinghe, 2008).
 The author notes that there are many more advantages in liquid bio-fuel. As Gliricidia and Leucena are nitrogen storing plants; these help to enrich the soil. In addition, it diminishes the soil erosion in when they are grown in slopes.  Farmers get profits from degraded lands because these plants can be grown in barren lands also (BEAS, 2007). People can decline their electricity costs replacing kerosene. Moreover, they can lessen the transportation expenditures to the city for kerosene. They can conserve some amount to get rid of their impoverishment (Wickramasinghe, 2008).
Further advantages are stated in the article, “Why Sri Lanka needs Dendro energy?” of Bio Energy Association of Sri Lanka. When country farmers gain extra cash from the Dendro or tree plantations, they can adopt animals. Hence, it leads to improve the dairy industry. Besides, people in country zones can have bio-fuel energy for those areas where electricity board cannot be reached. It causes to economic, social development in those remote places (BEAS, 2007). Bio-fuel reduces emission of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases which are responsible for global warming and climate changes because plants absorb carbon dioxide from the environment (Endersby A., 2007). Consequently, liquid bio-fuel is a useful energy producing mode.

Monday, August 1, 2011

Myths, fairytales and stories of the God teach lessons about life in Sri Lanka



When we are kids, parents tell us many stories about myths, fairytales and stories about God. There is no matter where we live. It is the way that we pass our childhood with our guardians. Generally, as the majority of people are Buddhists, they believe in God as well as Lord Buddha. As a result, parents take those myths and stories to teach their children lessons in life.
Firstly, we believe in horoscopes as they help us to figure out which path of life to select. Although most of people ignore the concept of horoscopes, according to my personal view, we can have faith on them up to some extent. Life is unpredictable. When we walk on a dark way, we need at least a small light to find out the direction. We can find our abilities and potential of our decisions with the help of stars which are on the sky when we come to this world. Every person has an identical horoscope. The astrologers who know to read what stars tell can predict about our lives. Thus, we can make decisions according to them without blinding selecting choices
Secondly, stories about Lord Buddha teach us lessons to treat and help others who are in need of help. Parents take us to see wesak lanterns and pandols in the wesak season when we commemorate the birth, enlightenment and passing away of Lord Buddha. There are many coaching we can gain. He shows his followers how to treat people who are suffering with different diseases, poverty and blindness without considering their class or cast. He made himself as an example to the public. We also can become skilled at those qualities, such as passion and patience. Hence, it contributes us to be a successful person following stories of Buddha.
             Thirdly, past life stories of Buddha convey many qualities that can absorb to our selves. There is a book called 550 Jathaka katha which contains five hundred and fifty one stories about past lives of the Buddha. Each and every story has a lesson to be learned. It teaches us about what is going to happen if we don’t adopt pleasant attitudes. For instance, if we are too much greedy, what is going to be the result? In the story, “Golden Swan Story”, it shows the fact I mentions above how greediness affects. Moreover, in the epic of “Mahaushada Story”, it conveys how to make brainy decisions and how to analysis something wisely. Therefore, the stories of Buddha teach many lessons that one can move in a bright pathway.
In conclusion, there are many stories that we can educate ourselves. Horoscopes, Stories of Lord Buddha’s life and past life are the main sources that we can get examples. According to my point of view, I think that if someone lives in a religious back ground, he can live a prosperous life although it seems like boring.

Silencing the right of expressing ideas in Sri Lanka


The duty of media is conveying what is happening around us in a realistic way including economic, cultural and political facts. When journalists express their ideas freely regarding politics, many parties threat them to avoid their expressions. The right of delivering opinions has been violated due to political powers. There are many ways that the different parties have used to stop journalists even in Sri Lanka.  To avoid writers’ duties in Sri Lanka, they have been assassinated; they have been kid napped and put in to jails for lame fake reasons as the means of silencing their voice.

Firstly, many journalists were assassinated miserably to end their activities. For example, Mr. Lasantha Wickremathunga who was the editor of Sunday Leader newspaper was shot dead in a high security zone where the army soldiers mobilize in Sri Lanka. He was a well-known government critic. In order to stopover his straight forwardness against the government in power, he used his writing and presenting ability. It was a disadvantage for those who govern. Then finally they killed Mr. L. Wickremathunga while he was going to the office from home. That is how relevant parties make steps to stop the upcoming voices against them. Moreover, Mr. Prageeth Eknaligods who was maintaining a news website was missing. People believe that he also has already been murdered. However, no-one has taken steps for their security.

Secondly, the authorities attempt to put their opponents in to jail for fake reasons. In Sri Lanka, there was a presidential election in 2010. Mr. Mahinda Rajapakse and General Sarath Fonseka who was the former head of the army competed against each other to be elected as the president. Soon after Mr. Mahinda Rajapakse won the election, he ordered Mr. Sarath Fonseka to implement a military court for bringing unauthorized equipment to the country under his period of office. Currently, he was placed in Welikada jail for being in contradiction of the president. Besides, he lost his seat in the parliament after he was taken to jail. Consequently, no matter who they are, the relevant parties punish them for not obeying them. That is also another mean of silencing opponent ideas.

Finally, those who hold the power use their authority to destroy media stations to prevent revealing the ideas against them. There are many incidents occurred in Sri Lanka in the recent past. For instance, an armed gang has attacked the Siyatha TV station at Colombo with firebombs. The closest reason to the attack was that it is linked to the former opposition presidential candidate Sri Lanka. Furthermore, another gang attacked the office of MTV/MBC in the presence of police officers. However, even the police have not taken any steps alongside to put suspects to the custody though they got proofs of suspects. Sri Lankan authorities use their ultimate power to silence the media which make trouble to them.

In conclusion, there are many ways to silence the media against their right of expressing ideas for the justice. Many journalists have been kidnapped or assassinated. Some are taken in to custody while media stations are destroyed. Still there is a doubt remaining regarding media freedom.

Saturday, July 23, 2011

What I learned by doing the research paper on BIO-FUEL

When I arrived at home yesterday around 7:00 P.M. , there was a power failure. Although I wanted to be under fan in order to relax, I didn’t get that opportunity because of this power issue. I understood that there should be some alternative energy sources in order to contribute to the national electricity generation. Therefore, I decided to study about bio-fuel, how it is beneficial and how we can produce bio-gas at home.
Firstly, I learned what bio-fuels are. Bio-fuels have three main types. They are solid bio-fuels, liquid bio-fuels and gaseous bio-fuels. Firewood which we can find everywhere is a solid form of bio-fuel. Bio-ethanol and bio-diesel provide examples for liquid matter. The most common bio-fuel category is bio-gas. Although I don’t know all forms of bio-fuel other than bio-gas theoretically, after doing the research paper, I learned about them more.
Secondly, I studied the benefits of using bio-fuel. As bio-fuel is eco-friendly form of energy, it doesn’t harm the environment. People can sell firewood to increase their incomes. There are some plants which contain oil seeds. People can grow them in degraded lands due to infertility. Thus, people are able to make use of barren lands too. Above all, bio-gas is one of the best made to generate electricity and cooking gas for domestic purposes at cheap price.
Third, I acquired knowledge how to setup a bio-gas unit at home. Years and years, I was wondering how to make bio-gas unit at my court yard from animal and plant waste. Because of the research, I learned that it is not a hard task. It is needed only some barrels with lids, pipes, tubes and manure. I was delighted when I realized it also powered by the nature.
In conclusion, when doing the research on bio-fuels, I learned what bio-fuels are, what the benefits of them are and how to set up a bio-gas unit at home premises as well as how it works.  By working on the research paper, I enjoy searching for details and reading them as this is my favorite field that I wished to study beyond one day.

Saturday, July 16, 2011

Qualities of a good friend...........



The friends, who are parts of our lives, have many good qualities, such as trustworthiness, honesty, and understanding between friends. Being trustworthy is one of the best qualities of a friend. It plays a vital role when friends share their secrets. If someone is not honest to his friend, the friendship is not going to exist because relationships depend mainly on honesty. Improving understanding between each other is also another good quality to have in a friend; because if there is not understanding between friends, it’s hard torecognise which kind of a person is the friend. Therefore I think that trustworthiness, honesty, and being understandable are the good qualities of a friend.




If someone needs to be educated.................

If someone needs to be an educated person, he or she needs to be a good student. Therefore, there must be obedience, punctuality, and dedication to be a good student. First of all, the student must be obedient to both teachers and parents. Respecting teachers’ advises is a major characteristic of a good pupil. A learner should be punctual as to get all the lessons without missing any parts of the lesson. Although a student is obedient and punctual, he can’t be successful unless he is dedicated to his studies. To conclude, if we are to be a good student, we need to be obedient, punctual, and dedicated. 

Monday, July 4, 2011

Help for those who do OCPJP exam of java (Methods of String class )

In  this video, you can learn about the methods in String class of java programming language. Although it contains many methods , I tried to present them in a memorable way. Hope you will enjoy.If there are any questions, contact me. I am ready to help you regarding this lesson.

Places I love to visit one day..............

There are lots of destinations that I wish to visit one day. Although it is out-side of my country, I wish to travel land by land, sea by sea and country by country. I focus on my favorite places in the world in here. I hope everyone would love them.
Manhattan, New York

This place is a highly populated and one of the most famous tourist destinations in the world. Visiting Manhattan provides everyone at least single option to satisfy him or herself. This city consists of lush greenery and open Central Park, breathtaking Rockfeller center, symbolic colossal statue Liberty and world famous yellow cabs.

Machu Picchu, Peru

Machu Picchu in Peru which is located in mountainous area 
above the UrubambaValley is the land of ancient Incas. This great city was hidden
until Hiriam Bingham, a Yale lecturer, discovered it in July, 1911.
This was initially built in middle of15th century and was said to 
have been deactivated for 3 centuries.

City of London, England















 City of London is also one of the best demanding tourist cities in the world similarly to New York. Also it is a highly populated city. Anyone can visit and enjoy the beauty of the Houses of Parliament and Buckingham Palace are the locations where pieces of architectural beauty can be seen while Whilst Hyde Park, Kensington Park, and
Regent’s Park are the places where give the natural beauty to the city.





Venice, Italy

 I consider Venice in Italy is the most romantic city in the world. Apart from that, Venice is popular for canals which provide romantic rides and commuter travel within the city.This attractive city consists of many noble buildings with amazing architecture. For instance, Palazzo Contarini del Bovolo and Piazza San Marco increases the affinity of this marvelous city.


 


 

 

Tuesday, June 28, 2011

Should everyone pay income taxes and all other taxes?

            Taxes are one of the main sources of income for the government. They contribute to the development of infer-structure facilities, to ameliorate economy of the country, and to reduce gap between rich and poor. Therefore, everyone must pay income taxes and all other taxes.
             Firstly, the government services public to the development of infra-structure facilities. When someone pays his or her electricity or telephone bills, some amount of each bill goes to taxes. That amount will help to authorities to widen the networks to a large area. Moreover, when communication and power supply are well provided, those areas also develop having new roads, highways along with proper gully systems. Hence, with the help of taxes, the government can develop infra-structure.
              Secondly, the government makes use of money come from tolls to ameliorate the economy of the country. As Sri Lanka is in critical economic crisis, taxes are used to pay debts which are given at high interest rate. It helps to reduce the prices of consumer items, and to decrease the interest rate of loans for novel entrepreneurs. Emerge of new successful businesses are the roots of a successful economy. Thus, the economy will be better when we pay taxes.
            Thirdly, the authorities can use taxes to reduce the gap between rich and poor. The revenue come from all kinds of taxes uses to give loans at low interest to destitute to form new means of making money. It paves the way people to make more revenue in order to live a better life. Furthermore, the government provides public with free education and medication on public schools and hospitals, respectively. Consequently, poor children can be successors with the help of free education achieving best levels in education. Moreover, anyone can take free medication according to patients’ need. Accordingly, taxes help to reduce the gap between rich and poor.
                In brief, everyone must pay income taxes and all other taxes in order to improve infra-structure facilities, to make a better economy status, and to lessen the gap between rich and poor. Therefore, taxes pays a vital role in the development of a country. 

Wednesday, June 22, 2011

Differences and Similarities of Natural and Artificial Feeding Methods

The father’s face filled with a fruitful and delighted smile when his first baby came to his hands while the mother was trying to feed the child with her breast milk. When the child is growing up, mother receives advice to nourish the kid with bottle milk. However, there are similarities and differences between bottle feeding and breast feeding.

First, we consider breast feeding. As we all know, breast milk comes from mother’s breast to feed her offspring turning red blood into purified white milk. It consists of perfect balance of nutrients of high levels of standards. A child can easily digest and absorb. It always keeps the perfect temperature. Moreover, milk is available at any time and any place exclusive of any preparation time. However, the mother should always be with the kid in order to nourish the child. Furthermore, mother should have to interrupt some certain medicine that can be harmful to baby. The most important fact is that it is totally free. Besides, it improves the love and bond between offspring and mother.

Second, we have a look at the account of bottle feeding. Mother has to prepare bottle milk from water and milk powder. It’s not as efficiently utilized as breast milk. The nutritional content depends on proper preparation. Unlike breast milk, some babies have difficulties with tolerating certain nutrients. On the contrary, anyone can feed the baby other than the mother. It takes some time to prepare the bottle full of milk; mother must be careful about warming formula also. In addition, bottle milk ranges some amount per month.
Breast feeding and bottle feeding methods also have some facts in common too. Breast feeding as well as bottle feeding provides a child with proper nutrients and helps in the growth of the child. Although it is hard to child to get used to bottle milk, he or she will love it by the influence of time.
In conclusion, even though there are many differences between bottle milk and breast milk feeding methods, there are similar points too to illustrate the connection.

Tuesday, June 21, 2011

Comparison of ancient Mesopotamian belief about the afterlife with those the ancient Egyptians.


            “The  land  between  the  rivers”, which  is  known  as  Mesopotamia  lies  in  between  Tigris  and  Euphrates  rivers  around  5000  B.C.E.  The  basis  of  Mesopotamia  is  on  the  Fertile  Crescent  where  now  recognized  as  the  Iraq . And  the  Egypt  was  built  in  the  fertile  area  on  both  sides  of  Nile  River.  As  the  both  of  the  civilizations  based  on  a  river  valley,  there  are  many  similarities  and  differences  between  Mesopotamians  and  Egyptians.   Some  of  the  similarities  both  civilizations  had  were  belief  in religion, unit  of  time  and  measurement . Both  believed  in  God. There  are  many differences  in  Mesopotamians  and  Egyptians  more  than  similarities.  Among  them, the  social  structure,  the government, architecture  and  engineering  skills,  geography,  degrees  of  exposure  to  outside  invasions  and  beliefs.  Among  the  differences  they  had,  the  belief  about  the  afterlife  plays  a  vital  part  because  they had  completely  different  attitude  about  the  afterlife.



            First, focusing on land between Tigris and Euphrates rivers, Mesopotamians were pessimistic people because they believed that the God will punish them if they don’t obey and respect to the God. Mesopotamians were influenced by the God as well as Egyptians, but Mesopotamians thought that afterlife would be a bleak, dismal existence in the lower dark world. They had felt that they had nothing to look forward to in their after lives. Even there had been a popular saying among Mesopotamians as “life is hard and then you die”. It shows that they don’t have any hope for afterlife. Written evidence can be provided about the afterlife from the Epic of Gilgamesh (circa 2000 BCE): After death, the human person goes to the netherworld as an etemmu (ghost or shade). In this,  The “shade” is a ghostly double of the human person, and the netherworld is a gloomy subterranean realm. It shows that they have some tiny image about afterlife as a shade.



The epic of Gilgamesh provides many details about the Mesopotamian civilization. Once, Enkidu, Gilgamesh’s best friend has stated, "'There is a house whose people sit in darkness; dust is their food and clay their meat. They are
clothed like birds with wings for covering, they see no light, they sit in darkness. . . .I saw kings of the earth, their crowns put away for ever. . . .now like servants...'" (92).
This conveys that Enkidu’s grim view of the afterlife. Moreover, Gilgamesh had said that only thing he couldn’t defeat was the dead.” Gilgamesh,whither rovest thou? The life thou pursuest thou shalt not find, When the Gods created mankind, Death for mankind they set aside……..   Unlike Egyptians, Mesopotamians concerned themselves more with literary records of their spiritual beliefs. And also Mesopotamians had a concept of hell, while Egyptians only had seen the gloomy side afterlife.
Second, looking at ancient Egyptians’ attitudes towards the afterlife, we can find out that they had many ideas about the afterlife. They were also very obedient and respectful to the God like Mesopotamians. Every Egyptian believed in life after death. They thought that life was more abnormal than the death, and they knew that only human species are only aware of that the physical life must end. Egyptians practised the art of body preservation which is also known as the mummification. The reproductive cycle made them believe about the life after death.
A lot of tombs were created to continue Egyptians’ present life after death also. They build pyramids to keep mummies with the all equipments they need to spend a better life after death. It shows the great creativity of Egyptians. Even today engineers can’t find how they made pyramids which are the most powerful structure. Getting into the afterlife required a lot of work. The gods were demanding of good and righteous
behavior. Therefore, in every tomb was placed the Book of the Dead. This was a collection of spells and prayers that supposedly helped the dead through the many dangers on the way to the afterlife. It also contained instructions for proper conduct before the gods in the afterlife.
Egyptians used body preservation art expecting to continue their present life with happiness without obstacles. Therefore, dead bodies were turned into mummies. There were many religious beliefs about the after death among ancient Egyptians. They had said “ If you are an Egyptian, you don’t have just one body and soul”. And also they believed that to be immortal the memory and name also should be eternal. Furthermore, they believed that the visible body which is known as the “khat” needed to be mummified for the rebirth.

They had many words regarding life after death. The spiritual partner of the body is called as “sahu”. The shadow is called as “khaibit”. Moreover, the heart ab  was the seat of intelligence while soul is called as “Ba”. The animated sprit by the emotions, imbue, represented by the head of the deceased on the body of a bird. Furthermore, it is said that a higher spiritual aspect, Akh, is the divine spirit in each one of us represented by three sacred ibis which separated from the body after death and dwelled among the stars.
One of the most famous concepts in Egypt ancient belief is the “ka”, or the double of the man. It is similar to a ghost. It is the image if the person, how they visualize a human being after death. They never guaranteed the eternity or immortality because they had to follow the Maat which is called as the natural order. Maat cannot be changed as it is up to the  God. And also they believed when a pharaoh died, he became a Osiris who is known as the God of the death. After death, Ka had to report to the Osiris for the final judgement whether the death person should be given an eternal reward or a punishment. Most anticipated reward, and since the ka could not exist without the body, after death, the people worked hard to preserve the dead body. The eternity had seen as
"an endless procession by the ka of the deceased through the heavens and the gods' abodes there. In
the company of friends and family, watched over by the protective and benevolent gods . . .There was
no need to work and no suffering. Such was heaven." (Adler 27-28).

When comparing and contrasting the ancient Mesopotamian belief about the afterlife with those the ancient Egyptians, we can say that Mesopotamians didn’t have a good idea about after death. It’s because of the sudden floods of Tigris and Euphrates.  Those uncertain floods damage farming and people. Therefore, they didn’t have a certainty about their lives, but the Egyptians didn’t have the sudden floods because the Nile River overflowed only in predictable time period of the year. Therefore, they can ready for floods to minimize the destruction. Due to many reasons, Mesopotamians and Egyptians had adopted different attitudes about the death and life after death.
















Sources:
·         The text book of “Civilization past and present”
·         Life after death: A History of the Afterlife in Western religion by Segal, Alan F.


My favorite location to be when I want to be alone to study

             How lucky I would be, if I had calm, open, and natural environment at one place to focus on my studies without any cost. I love calmness and silence. And I like open, and wide areas where I can see the unlimited sky. Similarly, I love to stay in touch with nature. Therefore, the best place I found to be alone to study is the second floor roof garden of my home.
            The silence and tranquility are the most leading features that I consider when I choose a place to study. As the roof garden is away from the ground, there is no one is there to shout.It is silent even the sound of a nail falling can be heard. I love that place especially because I can maintain concentration for reading with less disturbances.
            When there is open area to the unlimited sky, the limit of free and creative ideas and thoughts are also unlimited. I feel free like a bird. As my favorite color is blue, I love to be where there is a background of blue. The clean, fresh air touches me smoothly.Furthermore, it makes me feel happy and enthusiastic. Therefore, it encourages me to study.
            A connection with the nature helps to relax the mind. The roof garden consists of roses of many colors, Jebras, Anthuriums and some vegetables grown on the roof garden. One of the most common sights in my garden is butterflies who are moving around flowers searching for their food. It's obvious that when we are with nature, we forget  all the burdens that we have. Same theory is applicable for studying also. Moreover, it helps to focus on studies.
            In brief, I love my roof garden as a place where I can study because it connects me with the nature; It brings me tranquility and silence; It also provides me attractive blue background along with the sky, 

How to reduce anger.....(presentation)

Seeing the Light through Darkness

       Having a human life is like finding a gem from manure according to the Buddhism. Bad friends who meet in our life can lead one’s valuable life to dark. Drugs also can be a main cause someone to get lost his or her path. Family backgrounds can misguide a person. Bad friends drugs, and family backgrounds are the main reasons to misdirect person’s life.
            First, associating with bad friends can mislead one’s life. If a child has a friend who misses his schoolwork, the child also learns to neglect them. Psychologists have said that children learn imitating people around them, especially friends. Therefore, the child must have a good companionship.  Similarly, the lord Buddha also has preached that there are 4 kinds of friends to associate with who have good characteristics, and there are another 4 kinds of friends who lead us towards the sin. If anyone can’t get rid of bad friends he or she will have to sing “We real cool. We left school. We……”
            Second, addicting to drug is one of other major causes to a person to be misled. As we all know, in Sri Lankan, when a man drank overdose, the man with 2 legs will come back home with 4 legs in the night. He never can save money for himself. In many countries, some young crowd have addicted to drugs such as heroine. It causes them to have mental illnesses and weird behaviors such as having half opened yellowish eyes, sleepy, but sometimes they seem to be active unusually. They don’t work for themselves to successful. As I’ve heard, most of time, they will have to count grills.
            Third, the family background plays a vital role in one’s life to protect from misdirection. When a child’s parents quarrel, it will affect their child’s mind to be a violent person. Researchers have shown that even the child is in the cot, he will feel when his mother is sad. Children always take their parents as the role models. For instance, my brother never takes any kinds of drugs taking my father as an example. Mainly, a child is misguided when he or she doesn’t get the love he expects from the family. As a result of not having a pleasant family environment, a person can go on stray in search of love from outside, and most of time, he will be in trouble.
             In conclusion, I think that associating bad friends, drug abuse and unpleasant family background are the major reasons to one’s misdirection. Although it is hard to make understand that particular person that he is misguided, we can help them to recover when they understand it one day to make a happy life for the.
           


How to deal with ANGER


            When I entered my room, it was messy, spreading my pillows everywhere. I asked my mother what happed. She said that my brother got angry and that he reacted by going crazy. Then I decided to write an essay for him when he was calm on how to not to lose his temper as there is no point in telling him.

            First, count one – ten a few times ascending and descending. One of the simplest steps to lessen anger is counting. It lets you breathe well. Then, the new air enters to your lungs helps to purify hot tempered blood vessels. It also leads to a fresh feeling to smile forgetting anger.
            Second, if the first step doesn’t work, you can move to another action; it is thinking of something that you love to recall. For instance, you can remember the most romantic walk you had with your lover. It will bring a blushing delighted face to you. We are always cheery when we have our favorite memories in our minds. Therefore, it can use to overwhelm outrage.
            Third, if all of the above methods don’t work, I’m pretty sure that listening to music or watching a movie will be successful. In other words, we can name it as entertaining our minds. If you watch your favorite movie once again when you are irritated, it adapts a completely different attitude than you were a few minutes ago. Moreover, you can listen to your favorite song. It will remind you of the facts that mean to you in the song. Hence, entertaining your mind is one of the most triumphant remedies for being angry.
            In conclusion, if you follow these steps carefully and practice them in the long run, you will get rid of having lose your temper and decorate your face with a cute smile as long as possible. As a result, according to the saying, you will be handsome as you are not getting angry. Otherwise, your beautiful face will be ugly and you have to be in unpleasant mode at the present of others.